Instrumental case

Instrumental case (орудний відмінок) is used to express that someone or something is used as a means by which an action is archived. The Ukrainian word “орудний” is derived from “орудувати” (to operate with). English uses prepositions "by" and "with" to indicate this case.

Most common usages of instrumental case:

expressing means or agencyЯ пишу́ ру́чкою. - I write with a pen.
Він наріза́є хліб ноже́м. - He slices (cuts) bread with a knife.
Вона́ ї́де маши́ною. - She is going by car.
Вони́ йдуть ву́лицею вночі́. - They walk along the street at night. (They use a street to walk along)
with the preposition:
з / зі / із - with
за - behind, after
між - between
над - above
перед - in front of
під - under
Він йде в теа́тр з ді́вчиною. - He goes to the theater with a girl.
Вона́ йде з су́мкою в руці́. - She goes with a bag in her hand.
Він одружи́вся з нею. - He married her.
Вовк хова́ється за де́ревом. - The wolf is hiding behind a tree.
Ві́дстань між ни́ми. - The distance between them.
Кіт спить під лі́жком. - The cat sleeps under the bed.
after certain verbs:
бути (to be) in the past and future tense only;
стати (to become);
працювати (to work).
Мій друг бу́де лі́карем.- My friend will be a doctor. (He is not a doctor yet)
Його́ брат працю́є вчи́телем. - His brother works as a teacher.
with verbs expressing interest or involvement in somethingВона́ ціка́виться істо́рією Украї́ни. - She is interested in the history of Ukraine. (interested by the history)
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